Small Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of Rectum with Associated Paraneoplastic Syndrome: A Case Report

Jeannette A. Vergelí-Rojas, Dania L. Santiago-Caraballo, William Cáceres-Perkins, Priscilla Magno-Pagatzartundua, Doris H. Toro-Lugo


Neuroendocrine carcinomas of the colon and rectum comprise fewer than 1% of all colorectal cancers. These aggressive tumors generally have a poor prognosis compared to that associated with colorectal adenocarcinoma. We describe herein the case of a 68-year-old female presenting with a bleeding rectal mass involving the anal canal, which case was associated with hyponatremia due to inappropriate serum levels of antidiuretic hormone. The histopathological examination was consistent with a small-cell neuroendocrine tumor. She was treated with combination chemotherapy and radiation therapy. The Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone (SIADH) was managed with vasopressin antagonists. After the completion of therapy, endoscopic ultrasound revealed evidence of residual disease, for which she underwent an abdominoperineal resection (APR). The patient died 4 months later of disease progression. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a small-cell neuroendocrine tumor involving the rectum and anal canal that presented with the paraneoplastic syndrome, SIADH.


Small cell carcinoma; anorectum; SIADH

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