Prevalence of Gingivitis in a Group of 35- to 70-Year-Olds Residing in Puerto Rico

Augusto R. Elías-Boneta, Angeliz Encarnación, Sona Rivas-Tumanyan, Beatriz C. Berríos-Ouslán, Bayardo García-Godoy, Margarita Murillo, Jomar Diaz-Nicolas, Ferdinand Lugo, Milagros J. Toro


Objective: Gingivitis, an inflammation of the gingival tissues, typically progresses to periodontitis. The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of gingivitis in 35- to 70-year-olds residing in San Juan, Puerto Rico, and assess the differences in gingivitis distribution between age and gender groups. Methods: A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted with a sample of patients from a private practice and patients/employees of the Puerto Rico Medical Center. Participants completed a medical history questionnaire and received soft/hard tissue and gingival assessments based on a modified Löe–Silness index. Descriptive statistics were employed to estimate the overall gingivitis prevalence, severity (mild, moderate, severe), and mean gingival index (GI). Bleeding on probing (BOP) prevalence and the mean percentage of BOP sites were calculated by gender and age. Multinomial logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations between age, gender, and severity in 3 categories; multivariate logistic regression was used for having ≥40% sites with BOP (vs. having <40% sites with BOP as reference). Odds ratios were also estimated. Results: All 300 participants (52% women; 48% men) had gingivitis. The mean GI was 1.38. Moderate gingivitis was detected in 83% of the participants, mild in 7.3%, and severe in 9.3%. BOP was observed in 99% of the subjects (mean % BOP sites = 34%). After adjusting for age, men had significantly higher odds of moderate (OR = 4.66) and severe gingivitis (OR =10.06), compared to women, as well as 1.76 times higher odds of having 40% or more sites with BOP. Conclusion: Gingivitis was observed in all participants. Men had significantly higher GI, compared to women. The prevalence of gingivitis was higher in Puerto Rico than in the US.


Prevalence; Gingivitis; Adults; Bleeding on Probing; Puerto Rico

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